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DS-100C I-V Curver Tracer
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The Daystar DS-100C accurately measures the output of photovoltaic modules and systems up to 50 kW. It is rugged, portable, and designed for field use. Daystar Tracers, developed in the late 1980’s, were one of the first portable, self-contained units available for testing installed photovoltaic systems. Daystar Tracers have proven accurate, reliable, and durable and are used by many photovoltaic companies and national laboratories around the world.  Each DS-100 is shipped in a rugged foam-lined case and includes IVPC software, manuals, and cables.

DS-100C Specifications: The DS-100C will give accurate I-V curves for a single PV module up to a 50-kilowatt PV system. The unit auto-scales to 600 Volts and has 10, and 100 Ampere current ranges.

The IVPC software provided controls the DS-100C and includes tools to normalize, plot, analyze, and print the I-V curves. It includes an Auto-Curve mode that will take and store I-V curves when certain pre-set conditions are met.
Key parameters are given in the table below and complete specifications are in the Operations Manuals provided with each DS-100.

  Daystar DS-100C  
   
Current/Resolution 100/10 ADC maximum 3 ma/ 0.3 ma
Voltage/Resolution 600/60/6 VDC maximum 20 mv/2 mv/0.2 mv
Irradiance inputs Two analog voltage Accuracy +/- 0.1%
Thermocouple inputs Two - Type T standard Accuracy +/- 1°C
Power for Charging 120/240 VAC 50/60 Hz
Tracer Operating Temperature 0 - 50°C
Battery Time >10 hours before recharge
Computer Connections USB or RS-232
Data Sweep Time < 1 second
Tracer Size/Weight 44 x 35 x 20 cm 13 kg
Shipping Case Size/Weight 60 x 50 x 25 cm 11 kg
   


Testing an Array

Description: The Daystar DS-100C I-V curve tracer is a portable self-contained unit for testing installed photovoltaic systems. It weighs 13 kg and is packaged in a non-metallic case 44 x 35 x 20 cm. The DS-100C uses a capacitive load to vary the impedance connected to the output terminals of the PV array under test. The voltage and current are sampled as the capacitors in the DS-100C are charged. See notes on Sweep Rate . 

There is no direct control of the sweep rate of the Daystar Tracers but the maximum sweep rate may be approximated if the configuration of the array to be tested is known.

The Daystar IV tracers use a capacitive load. This capacitance is initially pre-charged to approximately -24 V. When the PV array being tested is connected to the pre-charged capacitor using a transistor switch, the PV system goes from open-circuit voltage to -24 V in tens of micro-seconds. At this early stage, the PV system will be putting out whatever current it would at -24 V, typically near short-circuit current Isc. Immediately, the load capacitance in the DS-100 will start charging and the voltage will rise from -24 V to the open circuit voltage of the PV unit being tested. It's during this rise or sweep from short-circuit to open-circuit conditions that current and voltage data are collected for the IV curve.

As mentioned, the sweep rate depends on the interaction of the PV system and the capacitive load of the Daystar Tracer and follows the equation:

dV/dT (Volts/Second) = I/Cap (Amps/Farad)

From this we can approximate the maximum sweep rate for voltage which occurs when the current is the highest (Isc). This sweep rate is nearly constant for much of the curve since PV systems typically have nearly constant current until the knee of the IV curve is reached. Once the current starts dropping, the rate of change of voltage will slow as well.

The Daystar DS-100C tracer has two capacitance values depending on the setting of the voltage range switch. For the high voltage range (600 V) the capacitance is approximately 1,500 uF (1.5E-3 F) and in the low voltage setting the capacitance is 5,000 uF (5E-3 F). The maximum sweep rate can be approximated by calculating Isc/Cap. However, most sweep rate values relate to a single PV cell so the calculated number must be adjusted for the number of series-paralel connected cells in the unit under test.

 

This data set is transferred to the control computer for display, analysis, and storage using the powerful Windows-based IVPC software. The displayed I-V curve includes values of:

• Open Circuit Voltage, Voc
• Short Circuit Current, Isc
• Peak Power
• Voltage at Peak Power, Vpk
• Current at Peak Power, Ipk
• Fill Factor

The DS-100C has two thermocouple inputs, Type T is standard, and two analog voltage inputs that can be used for irradiance sensors. Values from attached sensors are saved as part of the I-V curve data record. USB and RS-232 serial connections are supported. The DS-100C is packaged in a rugged non-metallic cases which increases safety. They can be operated continuously for more than ten hours before battery recharge.

IVPC Software

curve_view.jpg

A software program, IVPC, is provided with each Daystar DS-100 I-V Curve Tracer. This menu-driven software controls the I-V curve tracer, transfers I-V curve data to the computer for storage, and includes a toolset to manipulate, normalize, display and analyze I-V curves. Some key figures are described below.

Data Grid—IVPC shows all I-V curves in a data grid with user-selected headers such as date, name, power, irradince, etc. Any of fourteen values in the curve file may be used as column headers.

Displaying Curves—IVPC displays single I-V curves or multiple curves using the Multi-curve feature.

Copying data/curves—IVPC provides several methods for copying and pasting curve data to popular word processing and spreadsheet programs.

Normalization—IVPC includes three methods for normalizing an I-V curve to standard conditions; ASTM-E1036 1993 and 1996, and a quick approximation method based on scaling current for irradiance and adjusting voltage for temperature differences.

Attached sensors—IVPC automatically reads, translates, and stores irradiance values from connected pyranometers and temperatures from connected thermocouples. These data are used for normalization.

IVPC is updated periodically and the latest version is available here

This is licensed software and should not be distributed without written consent from Daystar, Inc. You may download the latest version and use it's full capabilities for 30 days.

 

 

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